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Gordon Hendler

Curator, Echinoderms

Dr. Hendler is author of a popular book on “Sea Stars, Sea Urchins and Allies: Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean,” published by the Smithsonian Institution Press.

He has been Curator of Echinoderms since 1985, and served as head of the museum’s Department of Invertebrate Zoology. In addition, he is a Research Associate at the Smithsonian Institution, and Adjunct Professor at the University of Southern California. Gordon received a B.A. from Rutgers University in 1968, and a Ph.D. from the University of Connecticut in 1973.

After completing postdoctoral fellowships at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, he directed the Smithsonian’s Galeta Marine Laboratory, and was a supervisor at the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center.

Gordon has conducted field work around the world, from the Aleutian Islands to the Antarctic, extensively in the tropics, and off both coasts of the United States, using scuba, submersibles, and ROVs. His research, primarily on brittle stars, has resulted in many publications on their morphology, ecology, systematics, behavior, reproduction and larval development.

RESEARCH

Dr. Hendler’s research, primarily on brittle stars, has resulted in many publications on their morphology, ecology, systematics, behavior, reproduction and larval development.

PUBLICATIONS

  • Hendler, G. 2013. Recent mass mortality of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) at Malibu and a review of purple sea urchin kills elsewhere in California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 112:19-37. 
  • Hendler, G and S.J. Brugneaux  (2013) New records of brittle stars from French Guiana: Ophiactis savignyi and the alien species Ophiothela mirabilis (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Marine Biodiversity Records 6 (e113): 1-5. 
  • Hendler, G. and S.J. Brugneaux (2013) New records of brittle stars from French Guiana: Ophiactis savignyi and the alien species Ophiothela mirabilis (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) -- ERRATUM. Marine Biodiversity Records 6 (e122): 1. 
  • Hendler, G., A.E. Migotto, C.R.R. Ventura, and L. Wilk (2012) Epizoic Ophiothela brittle stars have invaded the Atlantic. Coral Reefs. DOI 10.1007/s00338-012-0936-6. 
  • Hendler, G. (2011) New light on the nomenclature, taxonomy, and biology of Hemipholis species (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Ophiactidae). Zootaxa 3048: 44-52.
  • Hendler, G. and I.-H Kim (2010) Larval biology of thaumatopsyllid copepods endoparasitic in Caribbean ophiuroids. Journal of Crustacean Biology 30: 206-224.
  • Hendler, G. and M. Dojiri (2009) The contrariwise life of a parasitic, pedomorphic copepod with a non-feeding adult: ontogenesis, ecology, and evolution. Invertebrate Biology 128: 65-82.
  • Dojiri, M., G. Hendler, and I.-H Kim (2008) Larval development of Caribeopsyllus amphiodiae (Thaumatopsyllidae, Copepoda), an enterozoic parasite of the brittle star Amphiodia urtica. Journal of Crustacean Biology 28: 281-305.
  • Hendler, G. (2007) Class Ophiuroidea, Pp. 930-941. In: J.T. Carlton (ed.) The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates of Central California and Oregon (Fourth Edition). University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Hendler, G. (2005) Two new brittle star species of the genus Ophiothrix (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Ophiotrichidae) from coral reefs in the southern Caribbean Sea, with notes on their biology. Caribbean Journal of Science 41: 583-599.
  • Hendler, G. (2004) An echinoderm’s eye view of photoreception and vision. Pp. 339-349. In: T. Heinzeler and J.H. Nebelsick (eds.) Echinoderms: München. A.A. Balkema, Leiden.
  • Mallefet, J., G. Hendler, C.M. Herren, C. McDougall and J. Case (2004) A new bioluminescent ophiuroid species from the coast of California. Pp. 305-310. In: T. Heinzeler and J.H. Nebelsick (eds.) Echinoderms: München. A.A. Balkema, Leiden.
  • Aizenberg, J. and G. Hendler (2004) Designing efficient microlens arrays: lessons from nature. Journal of Materials Chemistry 14: 2066-2072.
  • Hendler, G. (2003) Canary of the sea, Beauty in the deep, Hancock’s Velero discoveries, Seeing stars. Pp. 16, 69, 70 and 74. In: B. Binet and E. Bailey (eds.) 90 Years, 90 Treasures. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. Los Angeles, California.
  • Ho, J.-S., M. Dojiri, G. Hendler, and G.B. Deets (2003) A new species of Copepoda (Thaumatopsyllidae) associated with a brittle star from California, USA, and designation of a new Order Thaumatopsylloida. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23: 582-594.
  • Hendler, G. (2002) Ophiuroidea. Pp. 414-416. In: J.W. Nybakken, W.W. Broenkow, T.L. Vallier (eds.) Interdisciplinary Encyclopedia of Marine Sciences. Grolier Academic Reference, Danbury, Connecticut.
  • Hendler, G. (2002). Marine Fauna from Isla San Felix, Chile. Pp. 249-256. In: R.W. Schmieder (ed.) XROX: The 2002 San Felix Island Expedition. Cordell Expeditions, 4295 Walnut Blvd., Walnut Creek, California 94596.
  • Hendler, G. (2002) Echinoderms. Pp. 282-287. In: N. Eldredge (ed.) Life on earth. An encyclopedia of biodiversity, ecology, and evolution. Volume 1 A-G. ABC Clio, Santa Barbara, California.
  • Hendler, G. (2002) Account of Ophionereis diabloensis, a new species of brittle star, and O. amphilogus, with information on their brooding reproduction and distribution (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Ophionereididae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115: 57-74.
  • Hendler, G. (2001) That’s no worm… (Letter) Science 291: 47.
  • Hendler, G. and C.J. Bundrick (2001) A new, brooding brittle star from California (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County No. 486: 1-11.
  • Hendler, G. and L.U. Tran. (2001) Reproductive biology of a deep-sea brittle star Amphiura carchara (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Marine Biology 138: 113-123.
  • Aizenberg, J., A.Tkachenko, S.Weiner, L. Addadi, and G. Hendler (2001) Calcitic microlenses as part of the photoreceptor system in brittlestars. Nature 412: 819-822.
  • Fujita, T. and G. Hendler (2001) Description of a new species of Astrophiura (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from Tosa Bay, Japan, and several of its remarkable anatomical characteristics. Pp. 263-281. In: T. Fujita, H, Saito and M. Takeda (eds.) Deep Sea Fauna and Pollutants in Tosa Bay, National Science Museum Monographs, No. 20, Tokyo.
  • Hendler, G. (2000) Forward. Pp. 7-9. In: Schoppe, S. A guide to common shallow water sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers and feather stars (Echinoderms) of the Philippines. Times Media Private Limited, Singapore.
  • Hendler, G. (2000) Babysitting brittle-stars, kidnapping cuckoos, and other deceptions in the nursery. Terra 37: 8-15.
  • Hendler, G. and D.L. Pawson (2000) The echinoderms of the rhomboidal cays, Belize: biodiversity, distribution, and ecology. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 479: 273-299.
  • Humes, A.G. and G. Hendler (1999) Biology and taxonomy of species of Ophiopsyllus and Pseudanthessius (Copepoda) associated with brittle stars (Ophiuroidea) in Belize. Bulletin of Marine Science 65: 699-713.
  • Hendler, G., C.C. Baldwin, D.G. Smith, and C.E. Thacker (1999) Planktonic dispersal of juvenile brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) on a Caribbean reef. Bulletin of Marine Science 65: 283-288.
  • Hendler, G., M.J. Grygier, E. Maldonado, and J. Denton (1999) Babysitting brittle stars: Heterospecific symbiosis between ophiuroids (Echinodermata). Invertebrate Biology 118: 190-201.
  • Hendler, G. (1998) Implications of the remarkable ontogenetic changes in some deep-sea brittle stars. Pp. 353-358. In: R. Mooi and M. Telford (eds.) Echinoderms: San Francisco. Balkema, Rotterdam.
  • Pearse, V.B., J.S. Pearse, G. Hendler, and M. Byrne (1998) Discovery of an accessible population of Ophiocanops, off NE Sulawesi, Indonesia. Pp. 413-418. In: R. Mooi and M. Telford (eds.) Echinoderms: San Francisco. Balkema, Rotterdam.
  • Hendler, G. (1996) Crinoidea. Pp. 85-95. In: J.A. Blake and A. Lissner (eds.) Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.
  • Hendler, G. (1996) Ophiuroidea. Pp. 113-176. In: J.A. Blake and A. Lissner (eds.) Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.
  • Hendler, G. (1996) Echinodermata collected at Rocas Alijos. Pp. 319-338. In: R.W. Schmieder (ed.) Rocas Alijos. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
  • Dearborn, J. H., G. Hendler, and K. C. Edwards (1996) The diet of Ophiosparte gigas (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) along the Antarctic Peninsula, with comments on it  taxonomic status. Polar Biology 16: 309-320.
  • Hendler, G., J.E. Miller, D.L. Pawson, and P.M. Kier (1995) Sea stars, sea urchins, and their allies: Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. Smithsonian Institution Press. 390 pp.
  • Hendler, G. (1995) Underwater expedition to study brittle stars. Terra 32:6.
  • Hendler, G. (1995) New species of brittle stars from the western Atlantic: Ophionereis vittata, Amphioplus sepultus, and Ophiostigma siva, and the designation of a neotype for Ophiostigma isocanthum (Say) (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 458: 1-19.
  • Hendler, G. (1991) Stars of the Florida Keys. Terra 30: 26‑33.
  • Hendler, G. (1991) Chapter 6 ‑ Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea. Pp. 355‑511. In: A.C. Giese and J.S  Pearse (eds.) Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, Vol. VI. Blackwell Scientific and The Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, California.
  • Hendler, G. and J. E. Miller (1991) Swimming ophiuroids ‑ real and imagined. Pp. 179‑190. In: Yanagisawa, T., I. Yasumasu, C. Oguro, N. Suzuki, and T. Motokawa (eds.) Biology of Echinodermata. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
  • Hendler, G. and J.H. Dearborn (1990) Ophiuroidea (Schlangensterne). Pp. 176-181. In: W.  Wagele and J. Sieg (eds.) Fauna der Antarktis. J.Paul Parey Publishers. [in German].
  • Cobb, J.L.S. and G. Hendler (1990) Neurophysiological characterization of the photoreceptor system in a brittlestar, Ophiocoma wendtii (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 97A: 329‑333.
  • Byrne, M. and G. Hendler (1988) Arm structures of the ophiomyxid brittlestars (Echinodermata:  Ophiuroidea: Ophiomyxidae). Pp. 687‑695. In: Burke, R.D., P.V. Mladenov, P. Lambert, and R.L. Parsley (eds.) Echinoderm Biology. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
  • Hendler, G. (1988) Ophiuroid skeleton ontogeny reveals homologies among skeletal plates of adults: A study of Amphiura filiformis, Amphiura stimpsonii and Ophiophragmus filograneus (Echinodermata). Biological Bulletin 174: 20‑29.
  • Hendler, G. (1988) Western Atlantic Ophiolepis (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea): a description of O. pawsoni, n. sp., and a key to the species. Bulletin of Marine Science 42: 265‑272.
  • Hendler, G. and D. L. Pawson (1988) Echinoderm nomenclature: Not in need of repair. Systematic Zoology 36: 395‑396.
  • Hendler, G. and R.W. Peck (1988) Ophiuroids off the deep end: Fauna of the Belizean fore‑reef slope. Pp. 411‑419. In: Burke, R.D., P.V. Mladenov, P. Lambert, and R.L. Parsley (eds.)  Echinoderm Biology. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
  • Hendler, G. and M. Byrne (1987) Fine structure of the dorsal arm plate of Ophiocoma wendti: Evidence for a photoreceptor system (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Zoomorphology 107: 261‑272.
  • Hendler, G. and R.L. Turner (1987) Two new species of Ophiolepis (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico: with notes on ecology, reproduction and morphology. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of  Los Angeles County 395: 1‑14.
  • Hendler, G. and B.S. Littman (1986) The ploys of sex: relationships among the mode of reproduction, body size and habitats of coral reef brittlestars. Coral Reefs 5: 31‑42.
  • Hendler, G. and P. Tyler (1985) The reproductive cycle of Ophioderma brevispinum (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). P.S.Z.N.I. Marine Ecology 7:115‑122.
  • Hendler, G. (1984) Brittlestar color‑change and phototaxis (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Ophiocomidae). P.S.Z.N.I. Marine Ecology 5:379‑401.
  • Hendler, G. and J.E. Miller (1984) Ophioderma devaneyi and Ophioderma ensiferum, new brittlestar species from the Western Atlantic (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97: 442‑461.
  • Hendler, G. and J. E. Miller (1984) Feeding behavior of Asteroporpa annulata, a gorgonocephalid brittlestar with unbranched arms. Bulletin of Marine Science 34: 449‑460.
  • Hendler, G. (1984) The association of Ophiothrix lineata and Callyspongia vaginalis: A brittlestar‑sponge cleaning symbiosis? P.S.Z.N.I. Marine Ecology 5: 9‑27.
  • Hendler, G. (1982) An echinoderm vitellaria with a bilateral larval skeleton: Evidence for the evolution of ophiuroid vitellariae from ophioplutei. Biological Bulletin 163: 431‑437.
  • Hendler, G. (1982) Slow flicks show star tricks: Elapsed‑time analysis of basketstar (Astrophyton muricatum) feeding behavior. Bulletin of Marine Science 32: 909‑918.
  • Hendler, G. (1982) The feeding biology of Ophioderma brevispinum (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Pp. 21‑27. In: J.M. Lawrence (ed.) Proceedings of the International Echinoderms Conference ‑ Tampa  Bay. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
  • Hendler, G. and D.R. Franz (1982) The biology of a brooding seastar, Leptasterias tenera, in Block Island Sound. Biological Bulletin 162: 273‑289.
  • Hendler, G. and D.L. Meyer (1982) Ophiuroids flagrante delicto and notes on the spawning behavior of other echinoderms in their natural habitat. Bulletin of Marine Science 32: 600‑607.
  • Hendler, G. and D. L. Meyer (1982) An association of a polychaete, Branchiosyllis exilis with an ophiuroid, Ophiocoma echinata, in Panama. Bulletin of Marine Science 32: 736‑744.
  • Dearborn, J.H., L.E. Watling, K.C. Edwards, D.B. Fratt and G. Hendler (1982) Echinoderm biology and general benthic collecting along the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Journal of the United States 17: 162‑164.
  • Hendler, G. (1979) Sex‑reversal and viviparity in Ophiolepis kieri n.sp. with notes on viviparous brittlestars from the Caribbean (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 9: 783‑795.
  • Hendler, G. (1979) Reproductive periodicity of ophiuroids (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) on the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of Panama. Pp. 145‑156. In: S. Stancyk (ed.) Reproductive Ecology of Marine Invertebrates. Belle W. Baruch Library in Marine Science No. 9. University of South Carolina, Columbia.
  • Hendler, G. (1978) Development of Amphioplus abditus (Verrill) (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). II. Description and discussion of ophiuroid skeletal ontogeny and homologies. Biological Bulletin 154: 79‑95.
  • Hendler, G. (1977) The differential effects of seasonal stress and predation on the stability of reef‑flat echinoid populations. Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium I: 217‑223.
  • Worley, E.K., D.R. Franz and G. Hendler (1977) Seasonal patterns of gametogenesis in a North Atlantic brooding asteroid, Leptasterias tenera. Biological Bulletin 153: 237‑253.
  • Hendler, G. (1977) Development of Amphioplus abditus (Verrill) (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). I. Larval biology. Biological Bulletin 152: 51‑63.
  • Hendler, G. (1975) Adaptational significance of the patterns of ophiuroid development. American Zoologist 15: 691‑715.
  • Hendler, G. (1973) Northwest Atlantic amphiurid brittlestars, Amphioplus abditus (Verrill), Amphioplus macilentus (Verrill), and Amphioplus sepultus n. sp. (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata): Contributions on their systematics, zoogeography, annual periodicity, and larval adaptations. Ph. D. Thesis. University of Connecticut. 254 pp.
  • Humes, A.G. and G. Hendler (1972) New cyclopoid copepods associated with the ophiuroid genus Amphioplus on the eastern coast of the United States. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 91: 539‑555.
  • Hendler, G. and D. R. Franz (1971) Population dynamics and life history of Crepidula convexa Say (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) in Delaware Bay. Biological Bulletin 141: 514‑526.
  • Franz, D.R. and G. Hendler (1970) Substrate diversity and taxonomy of Crepidula convexa (Say) (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Occasional Papers of the University of Connecticut (Biology) 1: 289‑291.
  • Loveland, R.E., G. Hendler, and G. Newkirk (1969) New records of nudibranchs from New Jersey. Veliger 11: 418‑420.

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